Windmiller, Ric 1967 An archaeological reconnaissance of Bahía San Carlos, Sonora, Mexico, a preliminary report. This is further evidence of extensive trade networks operating in the Preclassic. Sacramento Archaeological Society Newsletter 1 3 :4—7. Tikal, specifically, had a population somewhere in the range of 60,000—120,000 people, which means it would have needed to get food and other goods from up to 100 km away. My primary data set is shipwreck material from The Field Museum's 12th-13th century J ava Sea Shipwreck collection, however, I also am incorporating material from other shipwrecks and maritime and terrestrial sites in East and Southeast Asia and Indian Ocean sites. A market exchange mechanism has been noted at Classic period Calakmul murals that depict a range of specialists near an area that appears to be a market Feinman and Garraty 2010.
The incentive is to profit by continuing to trade it until one of three things happens: an owner can't bear to part with it, it reaches a cultural area where it is not valued, or it reaches the bitter end of the trade route. And while the Ancestral Pueblo peoples of the American southwest have their own unique and distinctive cultures, many of their building styles trace back to Mexico as well. A-0405 , University of Arizona, Tucson. But some of the other commodities like gold, jade, copper, obsidian and other raw materials were goods that upper class and rulers used to show off their power. The volume presents our current state of knowledge about regional exchange systems in the American Southwest and Mesoamerica. The volume presents our current state of knowledge about regional exchange systems in the American Southwest and Mesoamerica.
American Anthropologist, 103 2 , 346-360. From its lowland Maya origins it spread throughout the Aztec empire, where the game was so popular that sixteen thousand rubber balls were imported annually into Tenochtitlan. Ancient Mesoamerica, 22 01 , 135-154. Provee el contexto de la excavación oficial. These volumes provide basic data to further our under standing of prehistoric exchange systems. Research in Economic Anthropology, 11, 17-56. Both methods were used in the production of salt, as has been proved in Nueve Cerros by Andrews and Dillon.
En The Road to Aztlan: Art from a Mythic Homeland, Virginia M. Geochemical analysis of ancient activities at two plazas in Coba, Mexico. Journal of Anthropological Research 67:387—420. The birds are native to the Yucatan, but were brought up and bred by the ancient Pueblo peoples. The major purpose of this production was serving the local and probably the regional demand of cutting tools, throwing weapons with a cutting point, and instruments for scraping, polishing and perforating, all of which could be a part of household maintenance activities. Akademische Druck Und Verglangsanstalt, Graz, Austria. More recent network analyses that examine the distribution of obsidian and relationship between actors in the exchange systems aid in understanding this variation as well.
Amerind Foundation, Dragoon, Arizona, y University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Analysis of obsidian from Moho Cay, Belize: New evidence on Classic Maya trade routes. Regional approaches to the study of prehistoric exchange have generated much new knowledge about intergroup and regional interaction. Science, 225 4660 , 414-417. The Aztecs valued the Maya for their able to produce and trade a variety of different commodities, and because of this, the Aztecs did not feel the need to conquer the Maya. The volume presents our current state of knowledge about regional exchange systems in the American Southwest and Mesoamerica.
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 22 1 , 206-247. Chichen Itza and Cozumel were used as trading bases by invaders in the Early Postclassic but after a mainland collapse the centralized commercial systems in place collapsed as well Rathje and Sabloff 1973. These volumes provide basic data to further our under standing of prehistoric exchange systems. Ponencia a la 17a Conferencia Bienal de Arqueología Mogollón, Silver City. Governing this middle class was smaller class of specially educated merchant governors who would direct regional economies based upon simple supply and demand analysis who would place mass orders as needed by other regions. By covering meat and other food items in salt the Maya were able to dehydrate it so that it would not rot. Tikal, specifically, had a population somewhere in the range of 60,000—120,000 people, which means it would have needed to get food and other goods from up to 100 km away.
Coastal Maya Obsidian Trade in the Late Postclassic to Early Colonial Period: The View From San Pedro, Ambergris Caye, Belize. Ancient Water Technologies provides a complete panorama of how ancient societies confronted themselves with the management of water. Because of the size of these, they would have also needed a larger amount of control from the Rulers to oversee it. En The Casas Grandes World, Curtis F. These are followed regional syntheses organized by time period, beginning with early hunter-gatherer societies and the first farmers of Mesoamerica and concluding with a discussion of the Spanish Conquest and frontiers and peripheries of Mesoamerica. Commodity or gift: Teotihuacan obsidian in the Maya region.
They were ritually smashed and buried after a hot chocolate like beverage was drunk the mugs often contain traceable residues in them. This variation has been explained by examining potential inland and riverine trade routes that when combined allow for further transport of bulk obsidian from highlands into lowlands as well as competing commercial and distributional systems created by sociopolitical relationships Hester et al. The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas: Vol. A very common form of obsidian used to transport it and derive blades from was the polyhedral core, which was most frequently used from the Early to Late Classic Trachman 1999. Eight hundred years have passed since the Mogollon holy man was murdered in Flowing Waters Town. There is also documented trade of goods ranging from honey to feathers throughout the Maya region.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles. Of significant interest to us are the dynamic processes of change, stability, rate of growth, and collapse of regional exchange systems relative to sociopolitical complexity. En Collected Papers in Honor of Marjorie Ferguson Lambert, Albert H. In the Puuc region, more central Mexican obsidian entered and while it does appear to be limited to elites only it does appear to be a highly commercialized and valued exchange good linked to Chichen Itza and market distribution Braswell et al. El Chayal obsidian from the Guatemalan highlands being found at Preclassic levels in Olmec regions on the Southern Gulf Coast and throughout the Yucatán peninsula point to extensive trade networks connecting the Maya region to other parts of Mesoamerica Asaro et al. Cacao beans, from which modern chocolate is made, are native to Mesoamerica, so these drink containers offer yet another connection to the culture and beliefs of Mesoamerican peoples. But in so doing, Dusty will root out disturbing secrets about his own past that will cast his father's suicide in an unsettling light.