Imported and local supplies for public sector steel plants percentages Steel plant Capacity Equipment mt Indian Imported Structurals Indian Imported Refractories Indian Imported Rourkela Bhilai Durgapur 1. Unscheduled stoppages of work in a process industry like steel can cause serious problems, since certain continuously working units like coke ovens, blast furnaces and steelmelting shops cannot be switched on and off though rolling mills can be. However, since the Indo-Soviet firm level contracts were not time-bound in that they had no expiry date, it is hardly surprising that such a reciprocal commitment was excluded. But there may also be a cost involved, which might have been avoided if the technology supplier had set u p a wholly-owned subsidiary. However, while west European countries are willing to transfer technology to India, such technology may prove to be rather expensive since the volume of production is lower than those of the two superpowers, and economies of scale are not operative to the same degree.
The power-generating equipment industry is a classic case of lack of standardisation in the capital goods sector. It is clear that the Soviets were determined not to include a penalty clause in the contracts. Besides, during the period of the growth strategy involving maximum labour and capital mobilisation into industrial production, no special bonus was introduced for innovation. Until recently, there seemed to be abundant supplies of raw materials but not such abundant quantities of labour and capital. It was pointed out by senior public sector executives that the fact that a lump sum payment is made for equipment by tonnage The collaboration agreements 85 means that, for an Indian negotiator, no price comparison is possible with similar equipment available on the international market.
Economic relations with India Republic 2. Although formulations technology is relatively simple, Indian manufacture of formulations did not develop since the transnationals controlled the raw material supply through the international patent system. Although Indian engineers consider them unnecessary, the responsible ministry officials would be unwilling to displease their political superiors. Contents: List of tables; Preface; List of abbreviations; Introduction; Part I: 1. In this 1991 book, Santosh Mehrotra presents a comprehensive study of this trading relationship and the transfer of technology from the Soviet Union. First, at the project preparation stage there was no great concern either on the Soviet or Indian side about cost estimates or profitability of the plants.
We undertake the second exercise first, beginning by noting the features of Soviet technology transfer to the steel industry. Before we draw this discussion on Soviet technology transfer to the steel industry to a close, one should note some features of the most recent phase in Soviet assistance, i. For example, in 1974 Indian clearing units belonging to Bulgaria were sold at discount rates of 25 to 30 per cent; clearing units from Egypt belonging to east European countries were even sold at discounts of 35 to 40 per cent. Changes in the sectoral composition of total aid utilised from all donors are summarised in table 4. Spares for the machine tools have also been developed within the Hardwar plant, without resorting to importation of Soviet design documentation for the manufacture of spares. Possibly one reason for the Soviets' disinclination to extend aid for over a decade was the slow rate of utilisation of their loans in the sixties see table 4.
She was the daughter of a distinguished lawyer, who was Mayor of Allahabad. Aid flows 71 Second Plan nearly 80 per cent of the aid loans authorised to India were for projects; this figure was round 60 per cent for the Third Plan. Transfer of technology 133 6. These 76 India and the Soviet Union technological inputs are: machine-operating skills, manufacturing technology, product design and research and development capacity. The Soviet leadership had made India the model of a peace zone country capable of peaceful transition to socialism. Costs and profitability were secondary 90 India and the Soviet Union considerations on which little emphasis was laid. Thus in the early 1960s, in spite of critical shortages of grain, bread was often fed to pigs and cattle because it was cheaper than other feedstuffs.
The 1977 credit still carried a 2. Thus, while a proportion of the Indian trade surplus can be explained by repayment amortisation plus interest of developmental loans, the residual Rsl6,013m + Rs6,532m - Rs9,735m of Rsl2,810m must almost entirely except for errors and omissions consist of repayment of defence loans. For example, even if the Sino-Soviet relationship improves, the superpower competition for influence in the Third World in general, and the Indian Ocean in particular, is unlikely to wane. A third, a Research, Development and Design Centre for the aluminium industry, was also in the process of being set up in the early eighties with Soviet assistance extended through multilateral channels, i. Moreover, the minimal exploration efforts undertaken by the oil companies in India had yielded no results.
In addition, many technocrats in public enterprises and officials in government departments provided valuable information during discussions on the subject of Soviet technology transfer to India and Indo-Soviet trade. Rather, the argument is that public sector investment in the Second, Third and Annual Plans in the heavy industries, as well as the steel, energy and pharmaceuticals sectors would have been well below the level achieved in the absence of east European assistance. Another relevant fact about the policy environment is that the marked shift in investment allocation to the capital goods sector, which characterised the Second Plan, was determined without any reference to foreign trade. Besides, 'the Detailed Project Report will also contain recommendations regarding the use of Indian equipment and materials for the construction and erection of the Refinery' Art. Equally important is the role of India in the non-aligned world. The 1987 reorganisation in foreign trade may ease this problem in the future, since many enterprises will trade directly.
The India Department of the Institute of the Peoples of Asia has a long history going back to Tsarist times. Chapter 6 deals with: 1. He presided over the formulation and implementation of India's first three Five-Year Plans, the second and third of which determined India's development strategy. It is a matter of speculation why the Soviet strategy was preferred to the Japanese one by Indian planners. On the other hand, Indo-Soviet trade has continued to increase rapidly in the seventies and eighties and may well continue to rise through the 1990s. At the 4mt expansion stage, both Bhilai and Bokaro are almost entirely indigenously supplied. Feldman was the first economist to focus attention on the relationship between the consumer goods and investment goods industries in a plan for rapid economic growth.
Technology transfer Economic aspects - India. The electrical distribution system for Barauni was supplied by the collab- Transfer of technology 119 orators; in Koyali, it was partly indigenous and partly Soviet, and by the late seventies, for Mathiira, it was entirely indigenous. Secondly, although the foreign-owned refineries made some attempt to substitute for imported equipment, not much was achieved until the public sector entered the field of petroleum refining. While the capital cost and import consent of the plant was roughly similar in the case of Bhilai and Durgapur see table 6. This study, which makes use of substantial field research, is altogether of a higher standard. He brings a combination of professional experience: with the as a policy maker and adviser, with international organisations as a technical expert, having lived on three continents and travelled to 63 countries providing technical advice to governments; and as an academic whose research work has been translated into French, Spanish, , and. The difficulty of one's task becomes clear when one realises the sheer variety of the financial performance of Soviet-aided enterprises.