The provisions of Convention No. With regard to political personalities mayors, members of parliament, party members , if labour inspectors should receive requests for information from them, for example, it is important that they should maintain the impartiality that must be their rule of conduct and display increased prudence. As the purpose of trade unions is to defend and represent workers, their role is generally essential. Inspectors or, if they exist, departmental, provincial or regional directors of labour subsequently should keep these senior officials informed of any events that they should know about. The Purposes of Inspection Many different forms and systems of labour inspection exist throughout the world. Account had to be taken of the impossibility, under the constitutions of certain States, of entrusting such powers to an administrative authority. In 1975, France unified the main inspection services, the whole of the inter-ministerial body thus established being governed by identical conditions of service, coming under the Ministry of Labour.
In France, in the event of a request for mass terminations, the labour inspection officials have the task of checking the way in which the consultation procedure has been followed, the validity of the reasons given to justify the terminations and the extent of the measures to be taken for resettlement and compensation. These are generally described by concepts such as deregulation, privatization, structural adjustment and market testing. There are other circumstances in which labour inspectors may be in touch with the judiciary—for example, if a piece of information is requested of them for the preliminary investigation of a case or if they are called as witnesses during proceedings. In the event of any doubt as to whether any categories of persons are to be regarded as seafarers for the purpose of this Convention, the question shall be determined by the central coordinating authority after consulting the organizations of shipowners and seafarers concerned; e the term seafarers' working and living conditions means the conditions such as those relating to the standards of maintenance and cleanliness of shipboard living and working areas, minimum age, articles of agreement, food and catering, crew accommodation, recruitment, manning, qualifications, hours of work, medical examinations, prevention of occupational accidents, medical care, sickness and injury benefits, social welfare and related matters, repatriation, terms and conditions of employment which are subject to national laws and regulations, and freedom of association as defined in the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948, of the International Labour Organization. After examining the financial position of the enterprise or the employment market, the labour inspector can in theory refuse the terminations in fact, this appears to happen in only about 5% of cases. It looks at policy issues in an international context, and examines how major developments in the economy, the labour market and technology can affect practices, as well as the effects of national and sectoral developments. But this body of experience has also shown the difficulties in achieving this indispensable evolution and in maintaining its orientation against a host of diverse impeding factors.
Other forms of collaboration are practised on a departmental or regional scale in certain countries, in accordance with various procedures. Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace. Other representative bodies, the works councils or committees, which have a wider competence, play the same role of extension. Labour protection, therefore, must also look for alternative resources for the development of its own contribution to prevention. Synopsis of European Health and Safety Directive.
Labour Inspection and the Workers As it is the clear and daily responsibility of labour inspectors to ensure the protection of the workers, it is inevitable that inspectors and workers should have extremely close relations. To direct is also to define a labour protection policy, to work out the principles for the work of inspection, to set an order or priority in accordance with the characteristics of the various branches of activity and the type of the enterprises and the results they obtain, to rationalize the activities enforcement policy , to perfect the methods and programme, to encourage and coordinate the different services, to evaluate results and to make suggestions to improve the functioning of inspection. Problems may arise when workers have to stay in camps, not by choice but by necessity of the service they provide. Comments range from issues of quality e. This can put labour inspectors in a delicate situation, for the officials representing the central authority are seldom well informed of the functions of labour inspection and they may be tempted, especially in certain disputes, to base their decision on considerations of law and order and social peace. While digitizing the current standard reference films removed the need to employ a light box, as both images could now be viewed on the same computerized image display system alongside that showing the subject's radiograph, it did not eliminate the problems arising from different inherent appearances between the original film and the digital test images, since those still remained in the digitized versions. In the field of occupational health and safety, labour inspection must either approve or collaborate with the bodies approved for carrying out the technical verification of certain types of plant and equipment, where they exist appliances under pressure, lifting gear, electrical installations.
Owing to the contacts it maintains with the world of labour and the information it collects in the normal course of its work, the labour inspection service possesses a large amount of information of a social nature occupational safety and health, the position of women workers and young workers, the state of labour relations, the conclusion and signature of collective agreements or economic nature number of enterprises, numerical strength of staff, hours of work carried out, average wages paid in different sectors of activity, requirements in skilled labour in the various economic sectors or geographic regions, and so on. The pursued prevention objectives must, additionally, be fully integrated into the system of objectives of the enterprises concerned. Start Printed Page 18428The quantitative system is not intended for the medical diagnosis of the pneumoconioses and related occupational diseases, but has proved invaluable for the accurate and reliable identification and characterization of such diseases and disorders in many scientific and administrative applications, including research into disease causation, evaluation of risk in terms of dust exposure, disease surveillance, disease prevention, and worker compensation. The French-speaking countries of Africa, for example, have inspection systems that come under the ministry of labour and cover all branches of activity. This preliminary check will be followed by the normal inspection carried out during visits to workplaces. These provisions form the common basis for the work of all the inspectors in a country and the guarantee for enterprises and workers against what is arbitrary, unfair and unjust. Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents.
Such conditions are far from being fulfilled worldwide or indeed even in the most industrially advanced market economies. Trade union participation in the determination of the criteria governing the use of dangerous substances and products is another essential criterion. The choice must fit in with a plan that they have specially adapted to the nature of the enterprise and with a sequence of aims arranged in order of importance. Still in the field of employment, labour inspectors are often mandated to ensure that the principle of non-discrimination is observed during recruitment or termination prohibition of any discrimination based on such factors as race, sex, religion, political opinion, nationality and family situation. Prior to 1950, the information evident on a radiograph could only be interpreted qualitatively.
At the end of the nineteenth century, most European countries had a body to deal with questions of labour legislation, generally attached to a ministry, such as the ministry of the interior or the ministry of industry and commerce. This is current practice in countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, the Scandinavian countries and many others. The common unifying element is labour policy, and this includes all activities carried out under its purview. Sometimes they preside over joint committees, for example to negotiate collective agreements or to settle disputes. This Convention applies to seagoing tugs.
The publication is relevant to labour inspectors, forest certifiers, forest managers and training and educational organizations responsible for training forest management staff and inspectors. National laws or regulations shall determine which ships are to be regarded as seagoing ships for the purpose of this Convention. It is normal for them to be consulted and associated in the study and solution of problems and in decisions that concern them. Occupational Safety and Health Series, No. Very often, they provide advice, information and opinions in their offices.